Here the list of detailed contaminants:
- Parasitic Cysts / Spore = In general, the reproductive body of an organism capable of reproducing the organism under favorable conditions. In water, most spores resist adverse conditions which would readily destroy the parent organism. The spore is sometimes considered the resting state of the organism.
- Chlorine = A gas used by many water utilities for the disinfection of water and as an oxidizing agent for organic matter and some metals. It imparts a noticeable taste and odor to water, and may contribute to the formation of trihalomethanes (THM).
- Oxidation = A chemical process in which electrons are removed from an atom, ion, or compound. The addition of oxygen is a specific form of oxidation. Combustion is an extremely rapid form of oxidation, while the rusting of iron is a slow form.
- Chloramine = A combination of chlorine and a small amount of ammonia, chloramine is a disinfectant used by some water utilities. The addition of the ammonia helps to make the solution more stable and longer lasting. Chloramines can cause an adverse effect on the taste and odor of water.
- THMs – TriHaloMethanes = Trihalomethanes are formed as a by-product predominantly when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. They represent one group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products. They result from the reaction of chlorine and/or bromine with organic matter present in the water being treated. The THMs produced have been associated through epidemiological studies with some adverse health effects.
Limits the total concentration of the four chief constituents (chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, and dibromochloromethane),
- VOCs – Volatile Organic Compounds = VOCs are a class of chemicals that have important properties in common: They evaporate, or vaporize, readily (they are volatile), and they contain carbon(and are therefore called organic). When present in water at low concentrations, some VOCs produce a sweet, pleasant odor.
Some VOCs, such as styrene and limonene, can react with nitrogen oxides or with ozone to produce new oxidation products and secondary aerosols, which can cause sensory irritation symptoms
- MTBE – Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether = A volatile organic chemical compound used as a fuel additive in motor gasoline. MTBE is easily dissolved in water and has been found in public and private drinking water supplies. Low levels of MTBE can make water undrinkable due to its offensive taste and odor and health risks.
- Bacteria = Unicellular microorganisms which typically reproduce by cell division. Although usually classed as plants, bacteria contain no chlorophyll.
- Fluoride = Solutions of inorganic fluorides in water contain F− and bifluoride HF2−. Few inorganic fluorides are soluble in water without undergoing significant hydrolysis.
The fluoridation of water is known to prevent tooth decay and is considered by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as "one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century". In some countries where large, centralized water systems are uncommon, fluoride is delivered to the populace by fluoridating table salt. Fluoridation of water is not without critics.
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